Glossary

Browse through glands, hormones and endocrine conditions.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

T

TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma

TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are slow-growing benign pituitary tumours that produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid).

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is produced by the hypothalamus. It plays an important role in the regulation of thyroid gland activity.

Tertiary hyperparathyroidism

Tertiary hyperparathyroidism means excess production of parathyroid hormone that has escaped all normal body feedback controls and so persists even in cases where the initial cause (low blood calcium) has been corrected.

Thyroid stimulating hormone

Thyroid stimulating hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. Its role is to regulate the production of hormones by the thyroid gland.

Toxic thyroid nodule

Toxic thyroid adenoma results in excessive thyroid hormone production from a single nodule in the thyroid gland. The excess thyroid hormone production can no longer be controlled by the body thereby resulting in hyperthyroidism.

Thyroid eye disease

Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune condition that affects the eyes causing swelling, inflammation and sometimes visual problems.

Triiodothyronine

Triiodothyronine is a thyroid hormone that plays vital roles in the body's metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and function, and the maintenance of bones.

thermoregulation

the control of temperature in the body, which is managed by the hypothalamus in the brain.

Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder affecting the equivalent of one in 2,500 girls, which may lead to a number of features including short stature, failure to enter puberty and infertility.

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the thyroid gland which may spread to areas around the thyroid and other parts of the body. Thyroid cancer can affect people of all ages but most patients are cured by the treatments now available.

Thyrotoxicosis

Thyrotoxicosis is a medical condition caused by an excessive amount of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream.

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system and is responsible for producing and releasing thyroid hormones into the bloodstream.

thyroidectomy

removal of all or part of the thyroid gland through surgery. Total thyroidectomy is the removal of all of the thyroid gland and requires the patient to take lifelong thyroid hormone replacement medication.

translocation

a change in the DNA sequence (genetic code) of an individual, caused by a part of one chromosome moving to form part of another chromosome during cell division.

Testosterone

Testosterone is a hormone that is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males. It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength.

tuberculosis

(TB) an infection caused by a bacterium, which can affect the whole body but particularly the lungs. TB is spread through the air in droplets – from sneezing or coughing.

thrombosis

a blood clot in a vein, which can lead to the vein becoming blocked, disrupting blood supply.

Thyroxine

Thyroxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. It plays vital roles in digestion, heart and muscle function, brain development and maintenance of bones.

trimester

one-third of the length of a pregnancy, lasting approximately 3 months.

Testes

The testes are two oval-shaped male reproductive glands that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone.

thrush

a fungal infection of the mouth, throat or vagina, characterised by white spots or a white discharge; can be treated easily with an anti-fungal medication.


Top